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Aims and Scope. Benedetto Croce and Italian Fascism offers a critical and engaging contribution to Croce studies. Details. pages; UNIVERSITY OF.
Table of contents

At first, Croce himself had regarded Fascism as a politically promising movement, but in the theoretical realm, he criticized its ideology and rejected Gentile's and his pupils attempts to identify idealism with fascism. Mussolini's own paper, Il Popolo d'Italia , called Croce "a walking ghost" and "a corpse four days old. During the reign of Mussolini and World War II, Croce supported democratic principles, although he was skeptical about democracy: "Sound political sense has never regarded the masses as the directing focus of society After he refused to take the loyalty oath, he was no longer invited to the meetings of the Reale Accademia of Naples.

In a letter to the president of Stockholm University in he expressed his horror at the persecution of Jews. The letter was published in Sweden and after it became known in Italy it brought threats against the author. Visitors at his home were listed in police reports and his houses were under surveillance.

“Benedetto Croce: the philosopher that intimidated Mussolini”. | A lecture by Armando Delicato

As a senator, Croce could not be arrested without the consent of the Senate, but the Germans and fascist partisans planned to kidnap him in the Villa Tritone in Sorrento, where he lived after leaving Naples to escape the bombings. For the allies, the operation was a great propaganda coup. After the war Croce was appointed Minister without Portofilio of the new democratic government and member of the Constituent Assembly.

Benito Mussolini & The Fascist Education System in Italy

Though he was open to social reforms, he viewed Communism with suspicion and stated that "liberalism and democracy are like two Siamese brothers, two persons joined by one circulatory blood system. On his retirement Croce established the Institute for Historical Studies in his Naples home, which held a magnificent collection of books.

Croce continued his intellectual work until the last days of his life. When he was asked about his health, he said, "I am dying at my work.

Acquiescence and Dissent | Printed_Matter

He had been suffering from a kidney infection after an attack of influenca. The family refused a state funeral. Croce maintained that there is no physical reality, nothing exists except the activity of spirit in history.

Like Hegel, he identified philosophy with the history of philosophy. History moves on with no final stage: it is the only reality, and the only conceptual and genuine form of knowledge.

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The physical is solely a construction of mind. Croce distinguished two basic aspects of experience — the theoretical, which included among others intuition, and the practical. In this category he placed all economic, political and utilitarian activities. The categories are dialectical, there is no action without thought. In normal experience intuition and concept combine, but in aesthetic experience we hold the two apart.

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In a work of art, form and content are inseparable. Intuition is free from concepts, it "is blind: the intellect lends its eyes to it. The critic holds himself honour bound to set aside, when confronted by a work of art, all theories and abstractions and to judge it by intuiting it directly. As a critic he started from the popular assumption that analysis of texts themselves must precede other analysis. Works of art must be viewed in the light of their own, entire context. Whether or not he made the tourist railways run on time, whether he hindered or encouraged the growth of communism, these may be debatable points; what is undeniable is that he turned his own country into a shambles.

Worse, he ended by dividing Italians against themselves in a fierce civil war which it took the statesmanship and good sense of many years to placate. How was he given the power that enabled him to do this? And why was he allowed to govern Italy for twice as long as any other Italian ruler of modern times?

An earlier generation of historians did not do much to help us answer this kind of question. Gioacchino Volpe and the fascist intellectuals had their own reasons for wanting to depict the revolution of as quite unconnected with what they described as the disreputable liberalism that had gone before. Language English. Expand all About This Publication.

Physical Description xi, p.


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ISBN Notes Includes index. Keywords and Subjects. Subjects Italy--Politics and government